Toot is a CLI and TUI tool for interacting with Mastodon (and other compatible) instances from the command line.
- Source code on GitHub
- Issues on GitHub
- Mailing list on Sourcehut for discussion, support and patches
- Informal discussion on the #toot IRC channel on libera.chat
- Posting, replying, deleting, favouriting, reblogging & pinning statuses
- Support for media uploads, spoiler text, sensitive content
- Search by account or hash tag
- Following, muting and blocking accounts
- Simple switching between multiple Mastodon accounts
toot includes a terminal user interface. Run it with
Copyright Ivan Habunek firstname.lastname@example.org and contributors.
Licensed under the GPLv3 license.
toot is packaged for various platforms. If possible use your OS's package manager to install toot.
Install from PyPI using pip, preferably into a virtual environment.
pip install toot
For Mac OSX users, toot is available in homebrew.
brew install toot
You can get the latest source distribution from Github.
toot displays a list of available commands.
toot <command> -h shows the documentation for the given command.
Below is an overview of some common scenarios.
- Post a status
- View timeline
- Status actions
- Account actions
Before tooting, you need to log into a Mastodon instance.
You will be redirected to your Mastodon instance to log in and authorize toot to access your account, and will be given an authorization code in return which you need to enter to log in.
The application and user access tokens will be saved in the configuration file
It's possible to be logged into multiple accounts at the same time. Just
repeat the login process for another instance. You can see all logged in
accounts by running
toot auth. The currently active account will have an
ACTIVE flag next to it.
To switch accounts, use
toot activate. Alternatively, most commands accept a
--using option which can be used to specify the account you wish to use just
that one time.
Finally you can logout from an account by using
toot logout. This will
remove the stored access tokens for that account.
The simplest action is posting a status.
toot post "hello there"
You can also pipe in the status text:
echo "Text to post" | toot post cat post.txt | toot post toot post < post.txt
If no status text is given, you will be prompted to enter some:
$ toot post Write or paste your toot. Press Ctrl-D to post it.
Finally, you can launch your favourite editor:
toot post --editor vim
Define your editor preference in the
EDITOR environment variable, then you
don't need to specify it explicitly:
export EDITOR=vim toot post --editor
You can attach media to your status. Mastodon supports images, video and audio files. For details on supported formats see Mastodon docs on attachments.
It is encouraged to add a plain-text description to the attached media for
accessibility purposes by adding a
To attach an image:
toot post "hello media" --media path/to/image.png --description "Cool image"
You can attach upto 4 attachments by giving multiple
toot post "hello media" \ --media path/to/image1.png --description "First image" \ --media path/to/image2.png --description "Second image" \ --media path/to/image3.png --description "Third image" \ --media path/to/image4.png --description "Fourth image"
The order of options is not relevant, except that the first given media will be matched to the first given description and so on.
If the media is sensitive, mark it as such and people will need to click to show it. This affects all attachments.
toot post "naughty pics ahoy" --media nsfw.png --sensitive
View what's on your home timeline:
Timeline takes various options:
toot timeline --public # public timeline toot timeline --public --local # public timeline, only this instance toot timeline --tag photo # posts tagged with #photo toot timeline --count 5 # fetch 5 toots (max 20) toot timeline --once # don't prompt to fetch more toots
--help to see all the options.
The timeline lists the status ID at the bottom of each toot. Using that status you can do various actions to it, e.g.:
toot favourite 123456 toot reblog 123456
If it's your own status you can also delete pin or delete it:
toot pin 123456 toot delete 123456
Find a user by their name or account name:
toot search "name surname" toot search @someone toot search email@example.com
Once found, follow them:
toot follow firstname.lastname@example.org
If you get bored of them:
toot mute email@example.com toot block firstname.lastname@example.org toot unfollow email@example.com
You may pass the
--disable-https flag to use unencrypted HTTP instead of
HTTPS for a given instance. This is inherently insecure and should be used only
when connecting to local development instances.
toot login --disable-https --instance localhost:8080
You can configure proxies by setting the
environment variables. This will cause all http(s) requests to be proxied
through the specified server.
export HTTPS_PROXY="http://18.104.22.168:5678" toot login --instance mastodon.social
NB: This feature is provided by requests and setting the environment variable will affect other programs using this library.
This environment can be set for a single call to toot by prefixing the command with the environment variable:
HTTPS_PROXY="http://22.214.171.124:5678" toot login --instance mastodon.social
Toot can be configured via a TOML settings file.
Introduced in toot 0.37.0
Warning: Settings are experimental and things may change without warning.
Toot will look for the settings file at:
~/.config/toot/settings.toml(Linux & co.)
Toot will respect the
XDG_CONFIG_HOME environement variable if it's set and
look for the settings file in
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/toot instead of
[common] section includes common options which are applied to all commands.
[common] # Whether to use ANSI color in output color = true # Enable debug logging, shows HTTP requests debug = true # Redirect debug log to the given file debug_file = "/tmp/toot.log" # Log request and response bodies in the debug log verbose = false # Do not write to output quiet = false
Defaults for command arguments can be override by specifying a
For example, to override
[commands.post] editor = "vim" sensitive = true visibility = "unlisted" scheduled_in = "30 minutes"
Introduced in toot 0.39.0
You can view images in a toot using an external program by setting the
tui.media_viewer option to your desired image viewer. When a toot is focused,
m will launch the specified executable giving one or more URLs as
arguments. This works well with image viewers like
feh which accept URLs as
[tui] media_viewer = "feh"
TUI uses Urwid which provides several color modes. See Urwid documentation for more details.
By default, TUI operates in 16-color mode which can be changed by setting the
color setting in the
[tui] section to one of the following values:
TUI defines a list of colors which can be customized, currently they can be seen
in the source code. They can be overriden in the
Each color is defined as a list of upto 5 values:
- foreground color (16 color mode)
- background color (16 color mode)
- monochrome color (monochrome mode)
- foreground color (high-color mode)
- background color (high-color mode)
Any colors which are not used by your desired color mode can be skipped or set to an empty string.
For example, to change the button colors in 16 color mode:
[tui.palette] button = ["dark red,bold", ""] button_focused = ["light gray", "green"]
In monochrome mode:
[tui] colors = 1 [tui.palette] button = ["", "", "bold"] button_focused = ["", "", "italics"]
In 256 color mode:
[tui] colors = 256 [tui.palette] button = ["", "", "", "#aaa", "#bbb"] button_focused = ["", "", "", "#aaa", "#bbb"]
toot includes a
text-based user interface.
Start it by running
H will bring up the help screen where all keyboard shortcuts are
H/J/K/Lto move around and scroll content
PageDownto scroll content
Spaceto activate buttons and menu options
Qto go back, close overlays and menus
Q- quit toot
G- go to - switch timelines
P- save/unsave (pin) current timeline
,- refresh current timeline
H- show this help
These commands are applied to the currently focused status.
B- Boost/unboost status
C- Compose new status
F- Favourite/unfavourite status
K- Bookmark/unbookmark status
N- Translate status if possible (toggle)
R- Reply to current status
S- Show text marked as sensitive
T- Show status thread (replies)
L- Show the status links
U- Show the status data in JSON as received from the server
V- Open status in default browser
Z- Open status in scrollable popup window
Firstly, thank you for contributing to toot!
Relevant links which will be referenced below:
- toot documentation
- toot-discuss mailing list used for discussion as well as accepting patches
- toot project on github here you can report issues and submit pull requests
- #toot IRC channel on libera.chat
Please be kind and patient. Toot is maintained by one human with a full time job.
First, check if your question is addressed in the documentation or the mailing list. If not, feel free to send an email to the mailing list. You may want to subscribe to the mailing list to receive replies.
Alternatively, you can ask your question on the IRC channel and ping me (ihabunek). You may have to wait for a response, please be patient.
Please don't open Github issues for questions.
First check you're using the latest version of toot and verify the bug is present in this version.
Search Github issues to check the bug hasn't already been reported.
toot envand include its contents in the bug report.
- Explain the behavior you would expect and the actual behavior.
- Please provide as much context as possible and describe the reproduction steps that someone else can follow to recreate the issue on their own.
This includes suggesting new features or changes to existing ones.
Search Github issues to check the enhancement has not already been requested. If it hasn't, open a new issue.
Your request will be reviewed to see if it's a good fit for toot. Implementing requested features depends on the available time and energy of the maintainer and other contributors.
When contributing to toot, please only submit code that you have authored or code whose license allows it to be included in toot. You agree that the code you submit will be published under the toot license.
Check out toot (or a fork) and install it into a virtual environment.
git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:ihabunek/toot.git cd toot python3 -m venv _env # On Linux/Mac source _env/bin/activate # On Windows _env\bin\activate.bat pip install --editable . pip install -r requirements-dev.txt pip install -r requirements-test.txt
While the virtual env is active, running
toot will execute the one you checked
out. This allows you to make changes and test them.
Please put some effort into breaking your contribution up into a series of well formed commits. If you're unsure what this means, there is a good guide available at https://cbea.ms/git-commit/.
Rules for commits:
- each commit should ideally contain only one change
- don't bundle multiple unrelated changes into a single commit
- write descriptive and well formatted commit messages
Rules for commit messages:
- separate subject from body with a blank line
- limit the subject line to 50 characters
- capitalize the subject line
- do not end the subject line with a period
- use the imperative mood in the subject line
- wrap the body at 72 characters
- use the body to explain what and why vs. how
For a more detailed explanation with examples see the guide at https://cbea.ms/git-commit/
If you use vim to write your commit messages, it will already enforce some of these rules for you.
You can run code and sytle tests by running:
This runs three tools:
pytestruns the test suite
flake8checks code formatting
verminchecks that minimum python version
Please ensure all three commands succeed before submitting your patches.
If sending to the mailing list, patches should be sent using
If you're unsure how to do this, there is a good guide at
Parts of this guide were taken from the following sources:
Documentation is generated using mdBook.
Documentation is written in markdown and located in the
You'll need a moderately recent version of Rust (1.60) at the time of writing. Check out mdbook installation docs for details.
Install by building from source:
cargo install mdbook mdbook-toc
HTML documentation is generated from sources by running:
To run a local server which will rebuild on change:
This document is a checklist for creating a toot release.
Currently the process is pretty manual and would benefit from automatization.
- Update the version number in
- Update the version number in
changelog.yamlwith the release notes & date
make changelogto generate a human readable changelog
- Commit the changes
./scripts/tag_version <version>to tag a release in git
git push --follow-tagsto upload changes and tag to GitHub
make distto create source and wheel distributions
make publishto push them to PyPI
- Create a release for the newly pushed tag, paste changelog since last tag in the description
- Upload the assets generated in previous two steps to the release:
- source dist (.zip and .tar.gz)
- wheel distribution (.whl)
TODO: this can be automated: https://developer.github.com/v3/repos/releases/
To regenerate HTML docs and deploy to toot.bezdomni.net:
- Fix compatibility with Pleroma (#399, thanks Sandra Snan)
- Fix language documentation (thanks Sandra Snan)
- Fix relative datetimes option in TUI
toot blockedcommands (thanks Florian Obser)
- Add settings file, allows setting common options, defining defaults for command arguments, and the TUI palette
- TUI: Remap shortcuts so they don't override HJKL used for navigation (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- BREAKING: Require Python 3.7+
timeline --accountoption to show the account timeline (thanks Dan Schwarz)
toot statuscommand to show a single status
- TUI: Add personal timeline (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Highlight followed accounts in status details (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Restructured goto menu (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Fix boosting boosted statuses (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Add support for list timelines (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- Move docs from toot.readthedocs.io to toot.bezdomni.net
- Add specifying media thumbnails to
- Add creating polls to
- Handle custom instance domains (e.g. when server is located at
social.vivaldi.net, but uses the
vivaldi.netmastodon domain. (#217)
- TUI: Inherit post visibility when replying (thanks @rogarb)
- TUI: Add conversations timeline (thanks @rogarb)
- TUI: Add shortcut to copy toot contents (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- Save toot contents when using --editor so it's recoverable if posting fails (#311)
- TUI: Add voting on polls (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Add following/blocking/muting accounts (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Add notifications timeline (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Fix bug where TUI would break on older Mastodon instances (#309)
- Fix Python version detection which would fail in some cases (thanks K)
- Fix toot --help not working (thanks Norman Walsh)
- TUI: Add option to save status JSON data from source window (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Add
--relative-datetimesoption to show relative datetimes (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Don't focus newly created post (#188, thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Add ability to scroll long status messages (#166, thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Add action to view account details (thanks Dan Schwarz)
- TUI: Fix crash when viewing toot in browser
- Add CONTRIBUTING.md containing a contribution guide
envcommand which prints local env to include in issues
- Add TOOT_POST_VISIBILITY environment to control default post visibility (thanks Lim Ding Wen)
tags_unfollowcommands (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
tags_bookmarkscommand (thanks Giuseppe Bilotta)
- TUI: Show an error if attemptint to boost a private status (thanks Lim Ding Wen)
- TUI: Hide polls, cards and media attachments for sensitive posts (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
- TUI: Add bookmarking and bookmark timeline (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
- TUI: Show status visiblity (thanks Lim Ding Wen)
- TUI: Reply to original account instead of boosting account (thanks Lim Ding Wen)
- TUI: Refresh screen after exiting browser, required for text browsers (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
- TUI: Highlight followed tags (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
- Fix packaging issue, missing toot.utils module
- TUI: Press N to translate status, if available on your instance (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
post --languageoption now accepts two-letter country code instead of 3-letter. This was changed by mastodon at some point.
- Fix: Failing to find accounts using qualified usernames (#254)
- BREAKING: Require Python 3.6+
post --scheduled-inoption for easier scheduling
- Fix posting toots to Pleroma
- Improved testing
- Remove usage of depreacted
text_urlstatus field. Fixes posting media without text.
- Display polls in
timeline(thanks Daniel Schwarz)
- TUI: Add [,] shortcut to reload timeline (thanks Daniel Schwarz)
- TUI: Add [Z] shortcut to zoom status - allows scrolling (thanks @PeterFidelman)
- Internals: add integration tests against a local mastodon instance
followerscommands (thanks @Oblomov)
- TUI: Show media attachments in links list (thanks @PeterFidelman)
- Fix tests so that they don't depend on the local timezone
- Fix account search to be case insensitive (thanks @TheJokersThief)
- Fix account search to use v2 endpoint, since v1 endpoint was removed on some instances (thanks @kaja47)
- Add '.toot' extension to temporary files when composing toot in an editor (thanks @larsks)
- Display localized datetimes in timeline (thanks @mmmmmmbeer)
- Don't use # for comments when composing toot in an editor, since that made it impossible to post lines starting with #.
- TUI: Fix crash when poll does not have an expiry date
- BREAKING: Removed
toot curses, deprecated since 2019-09-03
toot post, allows scheduling toots
toot post, for adding descriptions to media attachments (thanks @ansuz)
toot notificationsto show only mentions (thanks @alexwennerberg)
toot postto allow specifying mime type, used on Pleroma (thanks Sandra Snan)
- Allow post IDs to be strings as used on Pleroma (thanks Sandra Snan)
- TUI: Allow posts longer than 500 characters if so configured on the server (thanks Sandra Snan)
- Allow piping the password to login_cli for testing purposes (thanks @NinjaTrappeur)
- Disable paging timeline when output is piped (thanks @stacyharper)
- TUI: Fix access to public and tag timelines when on private mastodon instances (#168)
toot timelineto respect
- TUI: Add opton to pin/save tag timelines (#163, thanks @dlax)
- TUI: Fixed crash on empty timeline (#138, thanks ecs)
- Fix datetime parsing on Python 3.5 (#162)
- TUI: Display status links and open them (#154, thanks @dlax)
- TUI: Fix visibility descriptions (#153, thanks @finnoleary)
- IMPORTANT: Starting from this release, new releases will not be uploaded
to the APT package repository at
bezdomni.net. Please use the official Debian or Ubuntu repos or choose another installation option.
- Revert adding changelog and readme to sourceballs (#149)
- TUI: Fall back to username when display_name is unset (thanks @dlax)
- Note: 0.25.1 was skipped due to error when releasing
- TUI: Show character count when composing (#121)
- Include changelog and license in sourceballs (#133)
- Fix searching by hashtag which include the '#' (#134)
- Upgrade search to v2 (#135)
- Fix compatibility with Python < 3.6 (don't use fstrings)
- On Windows store config files under %APPDATA%
- CLI: Don't use ANSI colors if not supported by terminal or when not in a tty
- TUI: Implement deleting own status messages
- TUI: Improve rendering of reblogged statuses (thanks @dlax)
- TUI: Set urwid encoding to UTF-8 (thanks @bearzk)
- Fix a date parsing bug in Python versions <3.7 (#114)
toot tui, new and improved TUI implemented written with the help of the urwid library
toot curses. It will show a deprecation notice when started. To be removed in a future release
toot postto allow composing toots in an editor (#90)
- Fix config file permissions, set them to 0600 when creating the initial config file (#109)
- Add user agent string to all requests, fixes interaction with instances protected by Cloudflare (#106)
- BREAKING: Dropped support for Python 3.3
toot notificationsto show notifications (thanks @dlax)
- Add posting and replying to curses interface (thanks @Skehmatics)
- Enable attaching upto 4 files via
- BREAKING: in
toot timelineshort argument for selecting a list is no longer
-i, this has been changed to select the instance, so that it is the same as on other commands, please use the long form
toot reblogged_byto show who reblogged a status (#88)
toot threadto show a status with its replies (#87)
- Better handling of wide characters (eastern scripts, emojis) (#84)
timeline, nicer visuals, and it will now ask to show next batch of toots, unless given the
- Add public/local/tag timelines to
- Support for boosting and favouriting in
toot curses, press
- Enable interaction with instances using http instead of https (#56)
- Enable proxy usage via environment variables (#47)
toot postprompt for input if no text is given (#82)
- Add post-related commands:
- Add support for replying to a toot (#6)
toot deletecommand for deleting a toot (#54)
- Add global
--quietflag to silence output (#46)
toot loginprovide browser login, and
toot login_clilog in via console. This makes it clear what's the preferred option.
- Use Idempotency-Key header to prevent multiple toots being posted if request is retried
- Fix a bug where all media would be marked as sensitive
- Add support for public, tag and list timelines in
- Curses app improvements (respect sensitive content, require keypress to show, add help modal, misc improvements)
- Create config folder if it does not exist (#40)
- Fix packaging to include
- Changed configuration file format to allow switching between multiple logged in accounts (#32)
- Respect XDG_CONFIG_HOME environment variable to locate config home (#12)
- Dynamically calculate left window width, supports narrower windows (#27)
- Redraw windows when terminal size changes (#25)
- Support scrolling the status list
- Fetch next batch of statuses when bottom is reached
- Support up/down arrows (#30)
- Misc visual improvements
- No changes, pushed to fix a packaging issue
- Fix bug with app registration
- BREAKING: Dropped support for Python 2, because it's a pain to support and caused bugs with handling unicode.
- Remove hacky
posting media without text (#24)
- Fix crash when toot's URL is None (#33), thanks @veer66
- Fix Windows compatibility (#18)
--debugoption to enable debug logging instead of using the
- Fix: don't read requirements.txt from setup.py, this fails when packaging deb and potentially in some other cases (see #18)
- Allow passing
login_browsercommand for proper two factor authentication through the browser (#19, #23)
- Add option to disable ANSI color in output (#15)
- Return nonzero error code on error (#14)
- Change license to GPLv3
- Fix error when running toot from crontab (#11)
- Minor tweaks
- Add commands:
- Internal improvements
- Fix conflict with curses package name
- Add experimental
cursesapp for viewing the timeline
- BREAKING: Renamed command
- It is now possible to pipe text into
- WARNING: Due to changes in configuration format, after upgrading to this version, you will be required to log in to your Mastodon instance again.
- Experimental 2FA support (#3)
- Do not create a new application for each login
- Migrate from
- Migrate from
uploadcommand to post media
- Add: view timeline
- Require an explicit login
- Fix invalid requirements in setup.py
- Initial release
Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. https://fsf.org/
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When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.
You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
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You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
- a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date.
- b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to "keep intact all notices".
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- d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so.
A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.
You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:
- a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange.
- b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
- c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b.
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- e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.
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A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.
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If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).
The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.
Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.
"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.
When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:
- a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
- b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or
- c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
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All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.
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Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".
A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.
A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
<program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author> This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html.